A key signifier of freedom in Beethoven’s music is the “blank sign.” This sign assumes various forms. This article traces these blanks both musically and philosophically to explore how they work and what they mean. In particular, it focuses on Beethoven’s Choral Fantasy as a commentator on the composer’s own usage of this sign as a representation of freedom and progress.
- absolute music
- Ludwig van Beethoven
- Choral Fantasy
- Op. 80
- Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
- Immanuel Kant
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