Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek clm. 14965b, copied in the early 12th century, consists of a treatise and lengthy tonary attributed to Frutolf of Michelsberg (d. 1103). With its ample list of mass and office chants, sequences, and processional antiphons, the tonary of the Munich MS has long been recognized as the most significant of its kind. A modern edition was produced by Coelestin Vivell in 1919. Because this edition is widely available, scholars have given little attention to one of the manuscript's most striking features, namely its substantial use of St. Gall neumes and letter notation. Vivell based his edition of the tonary on the Munich MS but omitted most of its notation, believing it served no practical purpose. Although Urbanus Bomm discussed the notation in his study of modality and chant, no comprehensive study of it exists. In its scope and significance, the notation in the Munich tonary far exceeds the traditional roles of tonary notation. In addition to incipits and finals, the scribe notated internal passages of many chants. A close examination of these passages reveals that they were carefully chosen and that they correspond precisely to problematic points in the repertory. The passages singled out for notation pose either practical or theoretical difficulties, and the notation serves to clarify the scribe's preferred solutions. Through comparison of the Munich tonary with a wide range of other sources, this essay illustrates the nature of these problems and the ways in which the notation clarifies them. The scribe emends traditional versions of melodies to present readings more compatible with modal theory, often reflecting the specific perspectives articulated in Frutolf's theoretical writings. In effect, the tonary serves a dual role as a theoretical work and practical performance guide. It opens a window onto a vigorous discussion and debate that surrounded the chant tradition in the late 11th century and offers a remarkable witness to the interaction between theory and practice in the Middle Ages.
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